The requirements to prove an informal -- commonly called common-law marriage -- have been codified. So, there is now a statutory basis for "common-law" marriage, just no marriage license. But formal registration is possible.
ELEMENTS OF COMMON-LAW MARRIAGE IN TEXAS
“Common law marriages have been recognized in Texas since 1847.”2 Russell v. Russell, 865 S.W.2d 929, 931 (Tex. 1993) (citing Tarpley v. Poage’s Adm’r, 2 Tex. 139, 149 (1847)). A common law marriage has three requirements: (1) the parties agreed to be married; (2) the parties lived together as husband and wife in Texas after they agreed to be married; and (3) the parties represented to others that they were married. TEX. FAM. CODE ANN. § 2.401(a)(2) (West 2006); Russell, 865 S.W.2d at 932; Palacios v. Robbins, No. 04-02-00338-CV, 2003 WL 21502371, *3 (Tex. App.—San Antonio July 2, 2003, pet. denied) (mem. op.). All three elements must exist at the same time. Palacios, 2003 WL 21502371, at *3.
“Informal marriage” is the statutory term used to describe what is colloquially known as a common law marriage. See TEX. FAM. CODE ANN. § 2.401 (West 2006).
To establish an agreement to be married, “the evidence must show the parties intended to have a present, immediate, and permanent marital relationship and that they did in fact agree to be husband and wife.” Eris v. Phares, 39 S.W.3d 708, 714 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 2001, pet. denied). The agreement to be married may be established by direct or circumstantial evidence. Russell, 865 S.W.2d at 933. The testimony of one of the parties to the marriage constitutes direct evidence the parties agreed to be married. See Eris, 39 S.W.3d at 714; In re
Estate of Giessel, 734 S.W.2d 27, 32 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 1987, writ ref’d n.r.e.). The conduct of the parties and evidence of cohabitation and representations to others may constitute circumstantial evidence of an agreement depending upon the facts of the case. See Russell, 865 S.W.2d at 933; Eris, 39 S.W.3d at 714. Cohabitation need not be continuous. See Bolash v. Heid, 733 S.W.2d 698, 699 (Tex. App.—San Antonio 1987, no writ) (holding evidence sufficient to establish cohabitation where husband worked in Nigeria but lived with wife each time he returned to Texas). As with all of the elements of common law marriage, cohabitation is determined on a case-by-case basis. See Estate of Claveria v. Claveria, 615 S.W.2d 164, 166 (Tex. 1981).
The statutory requirement of “represent[ing] to others” is synonymous with the judicial requirement of “holding out to the public.” Compare TEX. FAM. CODE ANN. § 2.401(a)(2) (West 2006) with Claveria, 615 S.W.2d at 166. “‘Holding out’ may be established by the conduct and actions of the parties.” Eris, 39 S.W.3d at 715. “Spoken words are not necessary to establish representation as husband and wife.” Id. Written references to the marriage or to a party as “spouse” are evidence of “holding out.” See Claveria, 615 S.W.2d at 167 (holding recorded deed in which parties represented they were married was evidence of common law marriage); Persons v. Persons, 666 S.W.2d 560, 563 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 1984, writ ref’d n.r.e.) (holding reference to one party as “spouse” in credit application was evidence of holding out).
SOURCE: SAN ANTONIO COURT OF APPEALS - 04-11-00332-CV - 4/18/12
Carmen’s affidavits were not sham affidavits and were sufficient to raise a fact issues on each element of her claim that she and Francisco had an informal marriage. Accordingly, the summary judgment is reversed and the cause is remanded to the trial court. Additionally, we hold the trial court erred in expunging Carmen’s second notice of lis pendens.